Guidelines for Sustainable Development
The Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown Development Plan 1998 states that the principles of sustainable development will inform all objectives, policies, decisions and actions of the Council for the period of the Plan.
The Development Plan and development control policies can exert a major influence on the achievement of sustainability. The Plan contains a commitment to produce and make available guidelines for sustainable development to assist in the design process.
These guidelines are intended to assist designers and developers to achieve greater sustainability when planning new developments. They include criteria for site appraisal, sustainable site planning and designing sustainable buildings.
Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council
1 PURPOSE OF GUIDELINES
These guidelines are intended to assist designers and developers to achieve greater sustainability when planning new developments. The guidelines include criteria for:-
- Site Appraisal,
- Sustainable Site Planning and
- Designing Sustainable Buildings.
They complement the policies and objectives contained in the County Development Plan aimed at achieving sustainable development and good quality design including the "Planning Guide for Residential Estates" and "Guidelines on the Sitting and Design of Rural Dwellings" (Appendix E) and the provisions of the Aalborg Charter - the "Charter of European Cities and Towns Towards Sustainability" (Appendix C).
Achieving a more sustainable environment involves making the best use of scarce resources including land, while designing a more attractive, energy efficient, healthier and less polluting built environment which is in harmony with the natural environment and which provides user friendly patterns of activity.
To achieve the objectives and criteria of these guidelines, it is recommended that developers should employ relevant professional services.
Developers will be familiar with the 1997 Building Regulations which require that new buildings achieve minimum standards of energy efficiency. It can be worthwhile in many cases to exceed these minimum standards.
The function of these guidelines is to advise rather than to prescribe specific standards.
It is intended to review the guidelines during the time-frame
of the 1998 Development Plan, taking account of feedback received.
2 BACKGROUND AND DEFINITIONS
The concept of sustainability is central to future development. The World Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 recognised that consumption of energy and renewable resources and production of waste must be limited to a sustainable level in the interests of mankind now and in the future. The most commonly used definition of sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (Brundtland Report 1987). Development must be within the carrying capacity or limits of the environment to support it. An integrated approach to environment and development issues is required if economic growth is to be achieved in line with rather than at the expense of environmental quality. The need to strike an appropriate balance between development and conservation is at the heart of sustainable development. "Sustainable design integrates consideration of resource and energy efficiency, healthy buildings and materials, ecologically and socially sensitive land use and an aesthetic sensitivity that inspires, affirms and ennobles".*
These broad definitions can be related to the broad sustainability objectives of the 1998 Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Development Plan. These include:-
- conserve finite resources,
- protect local capital,
- minimise the adverse impact of development on the built and natural environments.
* "Declaration of Interdependence for a Sustainable Future", International Union of Architects, Chicago 1993.
3 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
A key issue of sustainable development is the limitation and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The residential and transport sectors cause about 30% and 23%, respectively, of Ireland's overall CO2 emissions. Environmentally sensitive planning and design has the potential to achieve major savings in energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in these sectors. Nationally, Ireland has set a target, under the international Kyoto Protocol, to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions at 13% above 1990 levels by the year 2010. This will be a difficult target to meet. At local level the implications of aiming to achieve that target include the following:-
- Higher density development in particular along good quality public transport routes and at existing centres.
- The need for excellence in design in order to ensure that higher densities do not interfere unduly with existing amenities.
- Locations, layouts and design which encourage use of public transport, cycling and walking in lieu of car journeys.
- Devising sustainable mobility plans to reduce commuting by private car.
- Use of combined heat and power plants where appropriate.
- Energy efficiency in new buildings using building design and specification, including passive and active solar design mechanisms.
- Energy efficiency in existing buildings by retrofitting.
- Use of low embodied energy materials such as timber rather than aluminium and of recycled materials where appropriate.
4 GENERAL PRINCIPLES/OBJECTIVES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Key goals of sustainable development are:-
- Environmentally friendly patterns of activity
- Energy efficiency
- Provision of buildings and areas with lasting quality and character. This relates to design quality, to high standards of comfort and amenity, safety and convenience.
Integrating the principles set out below, at the design stage, can help achieve improved, healthier, safer, energy efficient and resource-conscious working and living environments.
1 Energy Efficiency
- Orient buildings to exploit sunlight and daylight.
- Design for energy efficient space and water heating incorporating an integrated design approach.
- Adopt simple passive solar design solutions, in the first instance, whose aim is to minimise consumption of fossil based energies.
- Consider active solar and alternative energy systems in buildings and combined heat and power schemes for high density developments.
2 Transportation and Mobility
- Encourage a reduction in car use and greater use of public transport while maintaining or improving accessibility
- Facilitate walking and cycling, in particular for local journeys.
- Relate new development to the surrounding community facilities and landscape context.
- Harmonise buildings with their surroundings.
- Design for durability and recycling.
- Promote use of recycled materials and materials from renewable sources.
- Generate minimum waste/pollution.
- Use landscaping to enhance the microclimate of a development.
- Provide for bio-diversity in landscape plans.
5 SITE AND MARKET APPRAISAL
5.1.1 Site Appraisal
At the outset of the design process a site appraisal should be undertaken which seeks to identify:-
- The visual and physical relationship of the site to its townscape and landscape context.
- Access to existing and proposed supporting services, employment opportunities, public open space and public transport.
- The topography, the prevailing wind conditions, the trees and other vegetation all of which influence the microclimate of the site.
- Potential overshadowing of or by adjoining properties.
- Trees, hedges, streams and boundary features of the site and any wildlife habitats which could be preserved.
- Material assets which should be preserved.
The site appraisal should also take account of the following interrelated issues of proximity and mobility.
5.1.2 Proximity and Mobility
Central to sustainability is the creation of an environment which permits a reduction in car use while maintaining ease of access between living and work places and local services. At the wider level, this includes encouraging greater public transport use, while more locally it involves the promotion of walking and cycling, instead of car use, and the location of employment opportunities close to homes.
The transport of children to school by private car is the greatest single cause of suburban traffic congestion and the resulting pollution. In this regard Area Action Plans will have regard to the Proximity Principle when reserving school sites, as considered necessary. The objective will be to select sites which facilitate safe local pedestrian/cycleway access separated from the roads hierarchy, and which are convenient to existing or proposed public transport facilities.
The major questions to be addressed when considering proximity and mobility issues for improved sustainability are:-
- How can the proposed development make the best use of existing or proposed public transport corridors, or town, district or local centres or other community facilities?
- Does the proposed development integrate well into the surrounding townscape and landscape context?
- Are there any barriers to pedestrian or cyclist movement?
- Are there opportunities for local employment either in purpose built facilities or by re-use of old buildings?
- Does the proposed development incorporate a Sustainable Mobility Plan (Management and Implementation ) to reduce commuting by private car?
A Sustainable Mobility Plan is a package of measures implemented by employers in an attempt to reduce the demand for car journeys to and from the work place in favour of more environmentally friendly modes.
It is a way in which employers manage the transport needs of their staff so as to improve the environmental impact of their operations. This can be achieved through measures to promote the use of public transport, cycling, walking, car-sharing, or a combination of these as alternatives to drive-alone journeys. Other work based measures include the compressed working week and teleworking, which reduce car commuting to place of work.
5.2 Market Appraisal
An essential element of residential development is the provision of a wide range of dwelling types and sizes to cater for one and two persons as well as for the traditional family unit. A comprehensive market analysis should be undertaken to ensure that housing meets the current needs of the market.
6 CRITERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Achieving a more sustainable lifestyle necessitates making the best use of scarce resources including land, while providing for a good quality of life. This may result in higher densities for new developments. In this regard the Development Plan states that:- "Higher densities may be permissible along strategic public transport corridors (close to the DART, Quality Bus Corridors and proposed Light Rail Transit Line)" (Section 3. 4. 4). However, in order to protect amenities a very high quality of design is essential, if higher densities are to be permitted. The Draft Guidelines on Density issued by the Department of the Environment and Local Government (March 1999) indicate that the Planning Authorities should promote and encourage higher densities.
For most greenfield sites, the sustainability criteria listed below will follow on from the framework and objectives of Action Area Plans.
6.2 Sustainable Site Planning
The points below refer primarily to residential developments but energy efficiency measures in particular also apply to non residential developments.
Residential development can vary from a simple domestic extension to the creation of a new neighbourhood. Whatever the scale, some of the following points will be relevant to any proposal and should be taken into account in order to make new developments more attractive and sustainable:-
6.2.1 Energy Efficiency Measures
- Preservation of features which enhance the microclimate of the site.
- Integration of solar heat energy systems with building design. Solar energy systems can contribute significantly to space and water heating.
- Orientation to enable dwellings to face within at least 45o of south to maximise solar gain and to exploit daylight. However, the design of residential layouts to maximise daylight and sunlight to dwellings should not be achieved to the exclusion of other considerations such as privacy or the achievement of an attractive streetscape.
- Limit overshadowing by adjoining buildings and trees to ensure no more than a 5% loss of useful total solar gain. Preferably existing trees should not be sacrificed to this end. Solutions should be sought in the spacing and location of dwellings.
- Provision of earth berms/shelter belts to improve energy conservation and use of building shape and layout to minimise wind tunnelling and eddying.
- Consider Combined Heat and Power (CHP) schemes for high density developments. In a CHP plant, most of the 'waste' heat is reclaimed for use in space, water or process heating. Efficiencies in the region of 80% are achievable and C02 production is reduced. In comparison, the overall efficiency of a conventional electricity generation plant is 30 to 35%.
An example of CHP is currently being promoted by the County Council in Dun Laoghaire. A scheme is being installed in the Pavilion complex to provide electricity and heating. Surplus waste heat over and above the requirements for the Pavilion will be piped to the County Hall, Dun Laoghaire Shopping Centre, the Royal Marine Hotel and St Michael's Hospital. This Scheme should be operational within the next 12 months.
6.2.2 Layout, Dwelling Mix, Design and Density
- For new residential areas the layout should be legible with core areas, nodal points and edges. It should be secure and well inter-connected and encourage walking and cycling and a choice of routes. It should also provide for a cellular structure.
- The layout should incorporate all natural and man-made features worthy of retention such as existing buildings, trees, hedges, streams and boundary features. Culverting of watercourses should be avoided.
- Provide greater variety in design, dwelling type and size to enhance the visual attractiveness of the proposed development and to provide for different household sizes. The growing number of 1-3 persons households should be recognised and catered for. This maximises choice of location for residents and thereby reduces the need to travel.
- Consider higher densities subject to excellence in design quality. Higher density housing can be inherently energy efficient and can also save on materials. Higher density allows for sustainable use of existing resources and can provide sufficient population to support proposed community and public transport facilities. In this regard, the draft Department of Environment and Local Government Guidelines on Residential Density, (March 1999), encourage higher densities, but place a firm emphasis on the importance of qualitative standards in relation to design and layout so as to achieve the highest quality of residential environment.
- The living/social function of the buildings should dominate, not the road layout.
- Within the layout certain buildings should perform a particular role, according to their position, such as, changing the direction of a road or enclosing/creating an open space.
- Consider the inclusion of one or more dwellings which would be suited to providing a residential service, such as a crèche or medical surgery. In this regard the guideline ratio is one crèche to 100 residential units.
6.2.3 Roads and Car and Bicycle Parking
- The residential road network should be based on the principles of environmental cells, with 'speed limits' achieved by road design. The speed limits for shared surface roads serving small "housing cluster" developments should be 16 km./hr. and 30km./hr. for cul de sacs and access roads.
- Residential roads should minimise the impact of car use. Speed limits as above can be achieved by devices including :-(i) the elimination of straight lengths of more than 40 metres for shared surface roads and 60 metres for cul de sacs and access roads; (ii) traffic calming devices and (iii) speed regulating curves. Traffic calming devices include shared surface for vehicles and pedestrians/children at play; different surface materials and colour variations; entrance treatments; road humps and pinch-points.
- Speed limits enforced by design are preferred to those imposed by way of retro-fitted calming devices.
- Environmental cells should generally be linked by frontage free through roads. However, dwellings should not be designed to back onto distributor roads.
- Roads should be laid out in such a way as to offer a series of alternative direct routes to any destination for the cyclist/pedestrian.
- Grouped residential car parking, which should be overlooked by dwellings, should be considered as well as underground car parking, where density permits.
- Provide for less car parking spaces close to strategic public transport corridors (existing and proposed).
- Provide for cycle parking and other cyclist facilities as appropriate, including secure covered locking facilities, direct and safe access from parking area to place of work, showers and lockers and to dwelling units.
- Residential roads should be designed so as to discourage parking of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs).
- Roadway and footpath design should have regard to the recommended standards in the July 1998 Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown guidance document "Development Works in Residential and Industrial Areas". Layouts which seek to ensure low traffic speeds and greater priority for pedestrians and cyclists within housing areas will be encouraged and the design standards will be interpreted with this criterion in mind.
6.2.4 Public Open Space
- Public open space should be integrated into the overall residential layout and should in all cases be overlooked and therefore informally supervised by surrounding dwellings.
- Public open space should be visually as well as functionally accessible to the maximum number of dwellings within the residential area. Active recreational open space should also be within a reasonable distance of residential developments.
- Apart from the main public open space areas, there is also a role for smaller more localised open spaces.
- Consider designating sections of public open space adjoining schools, for educational use, to allow schoolchildren to become involved in environmental improvements and increase their awareness of sustainability.
- Public open space corridors should provide for inter-connected, safe and secure pedestrian and cyclist movement.
- The landscape design including the retention of existing features and their visual setting, must be incorporated into the initial layout design process.
- A generous provision of soft and hard landscaping of public open space and private open space, where appropriate, should be incorporated into the design.As well as it's aesthetic and amenity appeal and its shelter effect, vegetation absorbs carbon dioxide and emits oxygen. It can remove up to 75% of dust, lead and other particles from the air, helps maintain water balance on site and in the area and metabolises pollutants in ground water.
- Native trees and shrubs and native stock should normally be specified, where appropriate.
- In the interests of bio-diversity, the landscape structure should create a network of maintenance free wildlife corridors linking with the nearby countryside.
- Use recycled or salvaged materials in landscape construction works - paths, walls and features.
- Design for reduced levels of landscape maintenance, reducing the use of herbicides and pesticides and the necessity for excessive machinery usage. Reduce or minimise high maintenance areas such as lawns, high maintenance planting.
- Maximise use of existing habitats and ecosystems rather than trying to create new areas
- Develop sensitivity in adapting water courses to new urban use. Minimise culverting, encourage native waterside vegetation, use of reed beds to absorb pollutants and regularise increased runoff.
- As children are main users of the outdoor environment, residential layouts should be as child friendly as possible with safe routes to schools and community facilities and play areas. Residential roads within environmental cells should be safe areas for children.
- Make safety and security a primary concern and design these features into all aspects of the layout.
- Indicate a clearly defined use for all areas within the site. There should be no poorly designed "left over" spaces.
- Make provision for composting and recycling for each site.
A significant amount of household rubbish can be turned into compost. Composting reduces the amount of waste disposal and can be of great benefit to gardens.
Incorporate where appropriate local "Bring Centres" into development layouts for recyclable materials.
- Make provision for the reduction of piped surface water runoff to receiving systems in order to mitigate the adverse effects of development on them, such as surface flooding and pollution. Methods include the use of permeable surfacing and disposal by on-site soakage, rather than by off-site piping, and/or the use of flow attenuation measures, where such piping is unavoidable.
- Minimise haulage of waste materials such as soil, subsoil, rock, off site. Redistribute on site.
- Seek undergrounding of ESB and telephone lines.
- Make provision for interim treatment of areas for later development.
- Design buildings to facilitate adaptation to changing uses and user requirements.
7 DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS
The primary objectives of sustainability in building are to:-
Minimise the Use of Energy
In the manufacture of materials, in the construction process and during a building's lifetime, and
Eliminate the Wasteful Use of Materials
These objectives can be achieved only by considering and implementing sustainability issues during the design, manufacture and construction process of new buildings and in the reuse and adaptation of old and obsolete ones.
7.2 The Building Regulations 1997 and the Proposed Building Energy Label
The 1997 Building Regulations require that new buildings achieve minimum standards of energy efficiency. However in most cases higher standards are worth achieving. Since a building can be expected to be occupied for 60 years or more, an energy efficient design can yield considerable savings over its lifetime.
Technical Guidance Document 'L' of the 1997 Regulations deals with Conservation of Fuel and Energy. This document requires that a building shall be so designed and constructed as to secure, insofar as is reasonably practicable, the conservation of fuel and energy. The Heat Energy Rating (HER) of a dwelling is a measure of the annual energy output, from the appliance(s) which provide space and water heating. The rating is calculated for standardised room temperatures, levels of hot water use and conditions of operation, by a specified method. Solar gain and internal heat gains are taken into account in the calculation as are the type of heating system and its controls. The rating is specified in energy output per unit of floor area per annum (kWh/m2/yr.). User friendly software for the performance of the necessary calculations is available from the Irish Energy Centre.
In the future there will be a Building Energy Label
implemented across the European Union for both new and existing buildings. This
may affect the market value of the building and may have taxation or grant
7.3 Principles of Sustainable Building
Sustainable building has three principles:-
- Reduce energy in use.
- Reduce embodied energy and resource depletion. Embodied energy refers to the energy used for the production of materials for construction, and includes energy used in extracting raw materials, processing and transport.
- Minimise external pollution, waste and environmental damage.
7.3.1 Reduce Energy In Use*
This can be achieved by Sustainable Site Planning and by 'green' design of the Building Form, of the Building Fabric, of Building Services and Water Services. Consider the following:-
1 Site Planning
This is dealt with in Sub Section 6.2.1. It includes:-
- orientation to exploit sunlight and daylight,
- minimising overshadowing,
- planting for shelter.
2 Building Form
- Form and layout should optimise solar collection and daylight use and should minimise heat loss.
- Rooms should be located according to heating, cooling, daylight and natural ventilation needs.
- Passive solar heated spaces should face within 150 of due south.
- Use thermal mass to absorb and store thermal energy.
- Reduce surface to volume ratio.
- Consider the appropriate glazing ratio for each facade.
3 Building Fabric
- Insulation. Levels of insulation higher than the requirements of the Building Regulations are in many cases economically justified.
- Avoid thermal bridges, which result in heat loss and possible condensation problems.
- Window design and construction. The use of low emissivity double glazing which has a special coating to reduce heat loss is recommended. Position large windows on the south face and smaller windows on the north.
* Many of the points in this subsection are taken from "Sustainable Design Notes - Considerations for Implementing Greener Design Strategies", Energy Research Group (UCD) et al, 1998. Some of the points are from an Irish Energy Centre leaflet on Home Energy, - "Planning and Building an Energy Efficient Home".
- Ventilation. Adequate ventilation is essential to provide fresh air and to remove moisture, odour and pollutants. However excessive ventilation during the heating season results in energy wastage and can cause draughts and discomfort. Controlled vents should be installed.
4 Building Services
- Heating Systems. Use only the most efficient and least polluting heating systems. Consider roof mounted solar water heaters. What are the opportunities for heat recovery and use of heat pumps? Account for available passive gains in sizing equipment.
- Ventilation Systems. Optimise natural ventilation. Consider also modern and innovative mechanical ventilation systems whose merits are not yet fully proven. Many of these systems are now coming onto the market offering energy efficiency.
- Lighting. Maximise available daylight use. Design lighting
for the specific task and specify energy efficient fittings and
5 Water Services
- Consider water conservation measures through the use of low or variable capacity flush toilets, low volume taps and shower heads. Promote water efficient dishwashers and washing machines. By specifying water conserving sanitary fittings and appliances, water consumption in dwellings can be reduced by 20 to 30% and in non residential buildings by 50% or more.
- Consider waste water re-use where appropriate.
- Utilise measures to provide for on-site absorption/disposal of surface water (see also Section 6.2.5) and consider re-cycling rain water to water lawns and for car washing.
- Use compact water distribution systems, with all hot water
distribution pipework in shortest possible runs and heavily insulated.
Water conservation measures reduce demand on water supplies and the load on sewage treatment plants. They also save on energy used in both processes and save energy on hot water heating in the building.
7.3.2 Minimise Embodied Energy
Recognise that all materials have an energy impact during extraction of raw materials, processing and transport. Material choice should aim at minimising impact.
Reducing the embodied energy in a building requires the use of locally sourced materials and of materials from sustainably managed sources. It also requires minimising the use of materials from non renewable sources and using recycled materials where appropriate.
7.3.3 Efficient Construction Methods
- Employ improved management and project control during the construction process. Consider the following:-
- Efficient use of machinery and transport.
- Efficient construction practices.
- Reduced wastage of building materials.
- Building into the landscape topography rather than adapting it to suit the development layout.
7.4 The European Commission Thermie "Low Energy Low CO2 Housing" Project
Developers and their professional advisors should be aware of the above project which is an initiative supported by the European Commission to promote energy-efficient housing. This project aims to show how it is possible, at low cost, to increase home comfort in standard type dwellings while considerably reducing energy expenditure and emissions of harmful gases to the environment. Special features of THERMIE homes include:-
- extra insulation in walls, roofs and floors,
- double glazing with low emissivity glass,
- controlled ventilation, well sealed construction and draught lobbies,
- energy efficient boilers and hot water systems,
- improved controls for space and water heating systems,
- energy efficient lighting systems and appliances.
The Irish Energy Centre can provide information regarding "Thermie" residential schemes (some constructed since 1994), schemes under construction and proposed.
Section 21 "Energy and Environment" of the "Masterplan for the New Ballymun" provides useful information regarding best practice energy efficient building design and specification. It also proposes strategies for "innovative" and "experimental" housing.
Developers and professional advisors should know about The City of Dublin Energy Management Agency (CODEMA). This is a publicly funded agency which can provide advice on energy efficiency and good energy management, with an emphasis on sustainability and quality of life issues.
The key considerations which should underpin sustainable development are conservation of resources, energy efficiency, pollution minimisation and the provision of environmentally friendly patterns of activity, in harmony with the natural environment.
A more environmentally sustainable development can be achieved through a balanced conservation approach along with an integrated design concept. Intelligent and sustainable use should be made of the site and the proposed development should be linked with the adjoining community facilities and services. The layout should facilitate walking and cycling.
'Green' architectural design strategies should be employed with regard to building form, fabric, services, materials and water services.
Providing sustainable developments may in some cases be more
costly at the design stage. However developers should bear in mind that what is
built now can last for up to 100 years or more. Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County
Council would encourage developers in the County to leave a legacy of high
quality developments, which are sustainable, conservation-conscious,
aesthetically pleasing and user friendly and which have high standards of
amenity, safety and convenience.
Ballymun Regeneration Ltd (1998) - "Masterplan for the New Ballymun"
City of Dublin Energy Management Agency (CODEMA). Website:- http://www.iol.ie/~codema
Department of the Environment, Dublin (1997) - "Sustainable Development - A Strategy for Ireland"
Department of the Environment and Local Government, Dublin (March 1999) - "Residential Density - Consultation Draft of Guidelines for Planning Authorities"
Department of the Environment and Local Government/Department of Public Enterprise (1998) - "Limitation and Reduction of CO2 and Other Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Ireland".
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, London (1998) - "Planning for Sustainable Development: Towards Better Practice" .
Dublin Institute of Technology (Nov. 1998) - papers presented at a conference organised by CRUBE, DIT - "Sustainable Design and Construction in Ireland".
Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council - Local Agenda 21 Reports
Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council - "Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Development Plan 1998".
Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council (March 1999) - "Stepaside Draft Action Plan".
Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown County Council (1998) - "Development Works in Residential and Industrial Areas (Guidance Document)".
Energy Research Group (UCD) et al (1998) - "Sustainable Design Notes - Considerations for Implementing Greener Design Strategies" .
Essex Planning Officers Association (1997) - "The Essex Design Guide for Residential and Mixed Use Areas".
Irish Energy Centre - "Tomorrow's World Today" - Report on THERMIE houses occupied 1994-1997.
Irish Energy Centre leaflets on "Home Energy" (Phone No. 1850 376666).
Irish Energy Centre et at (1996-) leaflets on "Sustainable New Housing In Ireland" - part funded by the SAVE programme of the EU.
Llewelyn-Davies and London Planning Advisory Committee (1998) - "Sustainable Residential Quality: New Approaches to Urban Living".
The Office of Public Works et al (Dublin, 1996) - "Green Design - Sustainable Building for Ireland".